新闻动态
热点追踪
  • 主管单位:中华人民共和国农业农村部
    主办单位:中国农业科学院柑桔研究所
    主  编:陈善春
    地  址:重庆市北碚区歇马街道柑桔研究所内
    邮政编码:400712
    电  话:(023)68349196
    电子邮件:nfgs@cric.cn
    国际标准连续出版物号:1007-1431
    国内统一连续出版物号:50-1112/S
    邮发代号:78-13
    定  价:10.00
  • 你是本站第:207
  • 今日访问:0
苏钻贤,黄 姜,申济源,张 荣,万志远,陈厚彬.‘妃子笑’荔枝高产若干生长发育性状[J].中国南方果树,2024,53(1):
‘妃子笑’荔枝高产若干生长发育性状
Several growth and development traits of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) with high yield
投稿时间:2022-11-19  修订日期:2022-12-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  荔枝  物候期  年生长量  营养元素含量
英文关键词:litchi (Litchi  chinensis Sonn.), phenology, annual  growth, nutrient  content
基金项目:岭南现代农业科学与技术广东省实验室茂名分中心(2021B0707010004);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设基金(CARS-32);广东省乡村振兴战略专项资金(403-2018-XMZC-0002-90);南非荔枝园管理专家系统引进与开发应用(2011-Z49)第一作者,苏钻贤(1981—),男,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为荔枝花芽分化及花调控技术研发。E-mail:zuanxsu@scau.edu.cn;通信作者:陈厚彬,男,研究员,博士, E-mail:hbchen@scau.edu.cn ,2,黄 姜1,申济源1,2,张 荣1,万志远1,陈厚彬1,2,*
作者单位E-mail
苏钻贤 华南农业大学园艺学院 zuanxsu@scau.edu.cn 
黄 姜 华南农业大学园艺学院 122009507@qq.com 
申济源 华南农业大学园艺学院 moonyuan@gmail.com 
张 荣 华南农业大学园艺学院 r-zhang@scau.edu.cn 
万志远 华南农业大学园艺学院 moonyuan@gmail.com 
陈厚彬* 华南农业大学园艺学院 hbchen@scau.edu.cn 
摘要点击次数: 396
全文下载次数: 355
中文摘要:
      ‘妃子笑’是我国栽培区域最广的一个品种,2021年全国‘妃子笑’荔枝种植面积79,896 ha,总产量达570,200 t。比较研究不同区域‘妃子笑’生长发育特性可为树冠管理、养分管理和成花坐果调控及区域适应性研究等提供生物学理论支撑,为其他品种制订高产和克服“大小年”技术方案提供借鉴。2009~2022年,记载和统计华南六省区纬度自18°32′ N至28°47′ N 的24县39个示范园‘妃子笑’物候进程;于始花期调研海南、广东、广西和云南省区18个果园‘妃子笑’结果树的枝、叶和花穗生长量,并取样分析 ‘妃子笑’枝、叶片、花穗主要养分含量,计算各器官的营养需要量。结果表明,全国‘妃子笑’主产区末次秋梢成熟期为8月下旬~11月中旬,见花穗原基(“白点”)期为11月下旬~3月中旬,盛花期为2月上旬~4月上旬,果实成熟期为4月下旬~7月底。3次秋梢生长历期分别约为35.9、39.5和40.2 d,秋梢老熟至见花穗原基(花诱导)期约87 d,花穗与花分化期约56 d,果实发育期约需63 d。海南地区‘妃子笑’采果后重修剪至1.5 m处形成矮化型树形,而粤西等地修剪至2~3 m高度,塑造高大型树形。结果龄‘妃子笑’采果后秋梢生长1~3次,每平方米树冠表面积的平均枝梢数为16条,秋梢平均长度37.7cm,秋梢复叶数17张、叶片数104张。 ‘妃子笑’各器官的年生长量,以鲜重计为:秋梢枝条16.8 kg/株,叶片40.2 kg/株,花穗17.2 kg/株;以干重计为:秋梢枝条9.2 kg/株,叶片23.2 kg/株,花穗7.2 kg/株。主要养分含量为:秋梢枝条N 0.76%、P 0.26%、K 0.72%、Ca 0.54%、Mg 0.15%;叶片N 1.78%、P 0.17%、K 0.94%、Ca 0.77%、Mg 0.25%;花穗N 2.20%、P 0.36%、K 1.74%、Ca 0.32%、Mg 0.29%。计算 ‘妃子笑’树年度枝叶、花穗和果实生长所需主要元素总量为:N 0.70 kg、P 0.10 kg、K 0.46 kg,秋梢期N、P、K占比为71.4%、70.0%、和63.0%。从多年产量稳定性看,陵水、琼海、海口、北海铁山港区、合浦、廉江和阳西等县域是‘妃子笑’适应性表现较好的栽培区。综合而言,随着纬度的北移和海拔升高,‘妃子笑’各物候期延后,果实成熟期持续达3个月以上;各地区‘妃子笑’物候期相差较大的是末次秋梢成熟期和果实成熟期,差异较小的是花诱导期;枝叶是需要养分的主要器官,确保秋梢生长量是支撑产量和品质的重要基础。
英文摘要:
      ‘Feizixiao’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is the most widely grown cultivar in China, with a planting area of 79,896 ha and production of 570,200 t in 2021. Comparative studies on the growth and development traits of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi trees in different areas is critical for research and development in tree canopy, nutrient, flowering and fruit management with region-specific characters. The phenological stages of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi in 39 orchards of 24 counties in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan provinces, between latitude of 18°32′ N and 28°47′ N, were recorded from 2008 to 2022. The annual growth of stems leaves and flower panicles taken at the beginning of flowering were measured from 18 orchards. The major element contents of litchi stem, leaf and flower samples from four orchards of Hainan province were assayed. The results show that, in the main growing areas of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi, the terminal autumnal shoots matured between late August and mid-November. Panicle primordia (‘white millet’) appeared from late December to mid-March. Full blossoms occurred between early February and early April, and fruit matured from late April to the end of July. There were one to three post-harvest flushes, lasting for 35.9, 39.5 and 40.2 days accordingly. Averagely it took 87 days for floral induction, 56 days for panicle growth, and 63 days for fruit development. The trees were managed mainly in two types: in the case of dwarf type, heavily post-harvest pruning to the height of about 1.5 m above ground whereas for the high type, pruning to about 2-3 m high. The tree grew 1 to 3 autumn flush after harvest. There were 16 shoots per m2 of canopy surface, each of average length of 37.7 cm, 17 compound leaves, and 104 leaflets. The fresh weights of stems, leaves and flowers on each tree were 16.8 kg, 40.2 kg and17.2 kg respectively. And the corresponding dry weights were 9.2 kg, 23.2 kg and 7.2 kg. The contents of major nutrient elements in the different litchi organs were: N 0.76%, P 0.26%, K 0.72%, Ca 0.54% and Mg 0.15% in stems; N 1.78%, P 0.17%, K 0.94%, Ca 0.77% and Mg 0.25% in leaves; N 2.20%, P 0.36%, K 1.74%, Ca 0.32% and Mg 0.29% in flower panicles. The annual consumption of major nutrient elements in a ‘Feizixiao’ litchi tree were N 0.70 kg、P 0.10 kg、K 0.46 kg. The proportions of N, P, K in autumnal shoots were 71.4%, 70.0%, and 63.0%, respectively. Based on the yearly production records and their stability, 'Feizixiao' litchi performed better in Lingshui, Qionghai, Haikou, Tieshangang, Hepu, Lianjiang and Yangxi counties. In conclusion, the phenology of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi delayed as the latitude went north and the altitude higher, resulting in the duration of three months for fruit harvest. The dates of the terminal shoot hardening and the fruit maturation varied more significantly, while the panicle emergence time differed slightly. Stems and leaves are the main organs that need nutrients, and ensuring the growth of autumn shoots an important basis for supporting yield and quality.
查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭