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朱利飞,刘丽琴,郑雪文,胡小文,杨转英.3个美国油梨品种在粤西产区引种表现评价[J].中国南方果树,2024,53(1):
3个美国油梨品种在粤西产区引种表现评价
Evaluation of 3 American Avocado Cultivars Introduced in Western Guangdong Production Areas
投稿时间:2023-02-17  修订日期:2023-03-21
DOI:
中文关键词:  油梨  引种  花特征  开花特性  果实性状  
英文关键词:avocado  introduction  flower morphology characteristics  biological characteristics of flowering  fruit trait
基金项目:国家十三五重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1002205);2020年省一流专业——园艺(010306052103)。
作者单位E-mail
朱利飞 广东海洋大学滨海农业学院 zhulifei0228@163.com 
刘丽琴 中国热带农业科学院南亚热带作物研究所 lingdang931@163.com 
郑雪文 广东海洋大学滨海农业学院 272880361@qq.com 
胡小文 中国热带农业科学院南亚热带作物研究所 xiaowenhu2018@163.com 
杨转英* 广东海洋大学滨海农业学院 332933829@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了解引入国家热带果树种质资源圃(广东湛江)的3个美国油梨品种Hass,Tonnage和Wilson的生育期、果实品质性状和适应性等情况,对这些品种花形态、开花特性、开花授粉受精生理特征和主要果实性状等指标进行了观测和比较分析。结果表明,3个引进油梨品种在粤西地区均能正常开花结果,果实生理成熟期Hass为11月上旬,Tonnage为8月旬,Wilson为9月初。花期均为2月下旬至4月中旬,花期比原产地短10~20天,Hass和Tonnage为A型花, Wilson为B型花;Hass、Tonnage和Wilson花粉萌发率均较高,分别为87%、75%和82%,开花后3h为最佳授粉期。果实风味、口感、颜色等性状与引种地基本一致,而Wilson平均单果重比引种地提高了2倍左右,而Tonnage单果重只达到引种地的70%, Hass与原产地相近。以上结果可为引进品种在我国的生产和利用提供参考。
英文摘要:
      This study examined the growth period, fruit quality traits, and adaptability of three avocado cultivars (Hass, Tonnage, and Wilson) introduced into the National Tropical Fruit Germplasm Resources Nursery in Zhanjiang, Guangdong. Flower morphology, flowering biology, and main fruit traits of these cultivars were observed and compared to better understand their performance in China. Our findings indicate that three imported avocado cultivars can bloom and bear fruit normally in western Guangdong. The fruit physiological maturity period is early November for Hass, early August for Tonnage, and early September for Wilson. The flowering period of the three imported avocado cultivars was shorter (late February to mid-April) than their origin. Hass and Tonnage were type A flowers, while Wilson was type B. The pollen germination rate of Hass, Tonnage, and Wilson was high (87%, 75%, and 82%, respectively). The best pollination period was observed to be 3 hours after flowering. Fruit flavor, taste, and color traits were consistent with the introduced area, while the average weight of Wilson's single fruit was twice that of the introduced area, and the weight of Tonnage's single fruit was only 70% of the introduced area. Hass was similar to its place of origin. These findings provide a valuable reference for the production and utilization of these introduced avocado varieties in China.
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