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杨国斌,陈才志,温欣宇,陈晖,甘霆,杨福孙.草甘膦、草铵膦喷施对槟榔根系形态及生理的影响[J].中国南方果树,2024,53(1):
草甘膦、草铵膦喷施对槟榔根系形态及生理的影响
Effects of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium spraying on root morphology and physiology of Areca catechu
投稿时间:2023-10-13  修订日期:2023-11-13
DOI:
中文关键词:  草甘膦  草铵膦  槟榔  根系  气生根  形态及生理
英文关键词:Glyphosate  glufosinate-ammonium  areca nut  root system  aerial rooting  morphology and physiology
基金项目:海南省现代农业产业技术体系项目“海南省槟榔产业技术体系岗位科学家项目(HNARS2022-1-G3 )”,海南省农业农村厅省重点研发计划项目“槟榔成花与开花机理及产量调控技术研究(ZDYF2022XDNY265)”。
作者单位E-mail
杨国斌 海南大学 1121096602@qq.com 
陈才志 海南大学 fsyang1590@163.com 
温欣宇 海南大学 fsyang1590@163.com 
陈晖 海南大学 fsyang1590@163.com 
甘霆 海南大学 fsyang1590@163.com 
杨福孙* 海南大学 fsyang1590@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      除草剂防除杂草的同时会给非靶标作物带来药害,频繁使用除草剂的海南槟榔园叶片黄化症状更加明显,我们推测除草剂可能导致槟榔根系退化,从而引起叶片黄化。本试验以幼龄期槟榔与成龄期槟榔为研究对象,测定草甘膦和草铵膦使用后槟榔根系生长发育形态与相关生理指标。结果表明:(1)在幼龄期槟榔根系中,主要以直径为0~1.5mm的根为主要根系结构,数量上占到总根的88%以上,表面积占到了总根的68%以上。草甘膦和草铵膦喷施显著降低了槟榔幼苗根系鲜重、干物质积累量,白色吸收根的比例、吸收根活力。(2)在成龄期槟榔气生根中,喷施草甘膦和草铵膦均引起气生根药剂残留,且农残随施用浓度增加而变高;喷施草甘膦和草铵膦,阻碍了槟榔气生根发育。草甘膦处理第14天后气生根死亡数达到最大,而草铵膦处理第28天后达到最大。(3)草铵膦损害了气生根组织结构,使新根内皮层排列稀疏,表皮组织厚度增加,木栓化程度加深,导致根表皮细胞大量死亡,抑制了气生根伸长与增粗。上述研究结果表明草甘膦和草铵膦通过木栓化加速根系死亡调控槟榔根系生长与发育。
英文摘要:
      Herbicides can cause damage to non-target crops while preventing weeds. Leaf yellowing symptoms were more pronounced in Hainan areca nut plantations where herbicides were frequently used, and we hypothesized that herbicides may lead to areca nut root degradation, which causes leaf yellowing. This experiment was conducted to determine the root growth and development morphology and related physiological indexes of areca nut after the use of glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium in young and adult areca nut. The results showed that: (1) In the young stage areca nut root system, roots with a diameter of 0-1.5 mm were the main structure, which accounted for more than 88% of the total roots in terms of number and more than 68% of the total roots in terms of surface area. Glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium sprays significantly reduced the fresh weight and dry matter accumulation, the proportion of white absorbing roots, and the vigor of absorbing roots. (2) In adult areca nut aerial roots, spraying of both glyphosate and glufosinate caused aerial root chemical residues, and the pesticide residues became higher with the increase of application concentration; spraying of glyphosate and glufosinate hindered the development of areca nut aerial roots. Aerial root death was maximized after the 14th day of glyphosate treatment, while it was maximized after the 28th day of glufosinate ammonium treatment. (3) Glyphosate and glufosinate impaired the structure of aerial root tissues, resulting in the thinning of the endothelial layer of the new roots, increasing the thickness of the epidermal tissues, deepening the degree of corkiness, and leading to the death of a large number of epidermal cells of the roots, thus inhibiting the elongation and thickening of the aerial roots. The above results suggest that glyphosate and glufosinate regulate the growth and development of areca nut roots by accelerating root death through corking.
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