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黄丽娜,程世敏,赵增贤,魏军亚,魏守兴.不同种植密度和行距配置对香蕉产量 及品质的影响[J].中国南方果树,2024,53(1):
不同种植密度和行距配置对香蕉产量 及品质的影响
Effects of Different Planting Density and Row Spacing on Yield and Quality of Banana
投稿时间:2023-11-01  修订日期:2023-11-21
DOI:
中文关键词:  香蕉  种植密度  行距  产量  品质  宜机化栽培
英文关键词:banana  planting density  row spacing  yield  quality  suitable for mechanized cultivation
基金项目:海南省自然科学基金项目(No.320RC724);国家香蕉产业技术体系儋州综合试验站(No.CARS32-16)。
作者单位E-mail
黄丽娜 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 linahuang2015@163.com 
程世敏 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 867944012@qq.com 
赵增贤 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 38562797@qq.com 
魏军亚 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 junyawei@126.com 
魏守兴* 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 shouxingwei@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为确定香蕉适宜机械化操作的种植密度和行距配置,采用裂区试验设计,以种植密度(P)(P1:2190株/公顷、P2:2340株/公顷、P3:2520株/公顷)为主区,行距(R)[ R1:(宽行5.10米+窄行1.00米)、R2:(宽行4.80米+窄行1.30米)、R3:(宽行4.50米+窄行1.60米))]为裂区,探讨不同种植密度和行距配置对香蕉农艺性状、产量及品质的影响。结果表明:R能显著影响香蕉株高和茎围,P和R对香蕉单产、总产量均有显著影响,P1、P2香蕉单产较P3分别显著提高10.29%、10.88%,P2总产量较P1显著提高6.62%;R3单产、总产量最高,R1单产、总产量最低。分析产量构成可知,R3能提高香蕉商品蕉采收率;P1、P2单果重较P3显著提高,R3单果重较R1、R2 分别显著提高21.23%、4.44%。P1果指长较P3显著提高,R2、R3间果指长、果指围显著高于R1。P和R对果实可溶性固形物均无显著影响。P3可滴定酸含量较P1、P2显著提高,P1、P2维生素C含分别较P3显著提高19.38%、15.78%;R3较R1显著提高维生素C含量8.77%。综上所述,宝岛蕉品种种植密度为2340株/公顷,宽行4.5m、窄行1.6m时,香蕉农艺性状、产量、商品蕉采收率、单果重、可溶性固形物及维生素C含量最高,试验结果为今后宜机化栽培的香蕉种植密度和行距的配置提供依据。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: In order to determine the planting density and row spacing configuration suitable for mechanized operation of banana, a split-plot experimental design was used. The planting density ( P ) ( P1 : 2190 plants / ha, P2 : 2340 plants / ha, P3 : 2520 plants / ha ) was the main area, and the row spacing ( R ) [ R1 : ( wide row 5.10 m and narrow row 1.00 m ), R2 : ( wide row 4.80 m and narrow row 1.30 m ), R3 : ( wide row 4.50 m and narrow row 1.60 m ) ) ] was the split area. The effects of different planting density and row spacing configuration on agronomic traits, yield and quality of banana were measured. The results showed that R could significantly affect the plant height and stem circumference of banana. P and R had significant effects on the yield per plant and total yield of banana. The yield per plant of P1 and P2 was significantly higher than that of P3 by 10.29% and 10.88%, respectively, and the total yield of P2 was significantly higher than that of P1 by 6.62%. R3 had the highest yield per plant and total yield, and R1 had the lowest yield per plant and total yield. By analyzing the yield composition, it could be seen that R3 can improve the commercial banana recovery rate The single fruit weights of P1 and P2 were significantly higher than that of P3, and the single fruit weight of R3 was significantly higher than that of R1 by 21.23% and R2 by 4.44%, respectively. The fruit finger length of P1 was significantly higher than that of P3, and the fruit finger length and fruit finger circumference of R2 and R3 were significantly higher than those of R1. P and R had no significant effects on fruit soluble solids. The titratable acid content of P3 was significantly higher than that of P1 and P2, and the vitamin C contents of P1 and P2 were significantly higher than that of P3 by 19.38% and 15.78%, respectively. R3 significantly increased vitamin C content by 8.77% compared with R1. In summary, when the planting density of Baodao banana was 2340 plants / ha, the wide row was 4.50 m and the narrow row was 1.60 m, the agronomic traits, yield, commercial banana recovery rate, single fruit weight, soluble solids and vitamin C content of banana were the highest. The experimental results would provide a basis for the configuration of banana planting density and row spacing suitable for mechanized cultivation in the future.
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