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贾朝爽,王志华.12个苹果品种19项果实采后品质指标比较及相关性分析[J].中国南方果树,2024,53(1):
12个苹果品种19项果实采后品质指标比较及相关性分析
Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Nineteen Quality Indexes of Twelve Apple Varieties after Harvest
投稿时间:2022-10-10  修订日期:2023-03-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  苹果  品质  相关性  综合评价
英文关键词:apple  quality  relevance  comprehensive evaluation
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
贾朝爽 中国农业科学院果树研究所/辽宁省果品贮藏与加工重点实验室 1912363172@qq.com 
王志华* 中国农业科学院果树研究所/辽宁省果品贮藏与加工重点实验室 wangzhihua@caas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】研究不同产地的不同品种苹果果实采后品质变化规律,筛选出品质优良的苹果品种。【方法】以12个苹果品种果实为材料,测定其19项品质指标(硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、维生素C、呼吸强度、乙烯释放量、破裂力、破裂位移、破裂功、屈服力、屈服功、屈服位移、果肉硬度、果肉做功、L*、a*、b*值、c*值、h*),并运用主成分分析进行综合评价。【结果】‘瑞香红’果实的硬度和可溶性固形物含量显著高于其他品种;‘国光’苹果的可滴定酸和维生素C含量最高;‘华红’果实的呼吸强度最高;‘瑞阳’和‘华月’乙烯释放量无显著差异,均显著高于其他品种。在穿刺参数测定中,‘国光’苹果的破裂位移、破裂功和果肉做功最大;‘瑞香红’苹果的破裂力、屈服力、屈服功和果肉硬度最大,‘华庆’屈服位移最大。在色差数据中,‘国光’苹果的L*值最大,‘瑞香红’苹果的a*值最大,‘瑞雪’苹果的b*c*h*值最大。不同苹果品种各项指标存在差异,其中硬度与可溶性固形物、破裂力、破裂功、屈服力、屈服功、果肉硬度、果肉做功呈极显著正相关,与乙烯释放量呈显著负相关;屈服功与果肉硬度、果肉做功呈极显著正相关;果肉硬度与果肉做功呈极显著正相关;L*值与b*值、h*值呈极显著正相关,与a*值呈极显著负相关;a*值与b*值、h*值呈极显著负相关;b*值与c*值、ho值呈极显著正相关。【结论】根据综合得分,可知排名前5位的苹果为‘国光’、‘乔纳金’、‘金冠’、‘瑞雪’、‘华月’,表明在同一采摘年份中,以上5个苹果品种的品质较好。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】To study the changes of post harvest quality of different apple varieties from different producing areas, and screen out apple varieties with good quality.【Methods】Using 12 apple varieties as materials, 19 quality indexes (hardness, soluble solids, titratable acid, vitamin C, respiratory strength, ethylene release, rupture force, rupture displacement, rupture work, yield force, yield work, yield displacement, yield work, flesh hardness, flesh work, L* value, b* value, c* value, h* value) were determined, and the principal component analysis was used for comprehensive evaluation.【Results】Hardness, soluble solids, vitamin C, titratable acid, respiratory intensity, ethylene release, puncture parameters and color are the main indicators to evaluate the appearance, flavor and storage resistance of apple varieties, comprehensively reflecting the characteristics of apple varieties. Because of the correlation of each index, the dimension of the index is reduced and the index factors are simplified through factor analysis, which can more reasonably evaluate the fruit quality. The fruit hardness and soluble solid content of ‘Ruixianghong’ were significantly higher than those of other varieties. The contents of titratable acid and vitamin C in ‘Guoguang’ apple were the highest. The respiration intensity of ‘Huahong’ fruit was the highest. There was no significant difference in ethylene release between ‘Ruiyang’ and ‘Huayue’, which were significantly higher than other varieties. In the determination of puncture parameters, the rupture displacement, rupture work and flesh work of ‘Guoguang’ apple were the largest ‘Ruixianghong’ apple had the highest breaking force, yield strength, yield work and flesh hardness, and ‘Huaqing’ had the highest yield displacement. In the color difference data, the L* value of ‘Guoguang’ apple is the largest, the a* value of ‘Ruixianghong’ apple is the largest, and the b*, c*, h* values of ‘Ruixue’ apple are the largest. There were significant positive correlations between hardness and soluble solids, rupture power, rupture work, yield power, yield power, flesh hardness, and flesh work, and significant negative correlations with ethylene release; yield work was positively correlated with flesh hardness and flesh work. There was a very significant positive correlation between flesh hardness and flesh work. L* value is positively correlated with b* value and h* value, and negatively correlated with a* value; a* value is negatively correlated with b* value and h* value. b* value is positively correlated with c* value and h* value. 【Conclusion】According to the comprehensive score, the top five apples are ‘Guoguang’, ‘Jonah King’, ‘golden crown’, ‘Ruixue’ and ‘Huayue’, indicating that the quality of the above five apple varieties is better in the same picking year.
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